3D Scanner and 3D Model Acquisition
A three-dimensional scanner or 3D scanner is a 3D digitisation and acquisition device used to perform a 3D scan, which is to collect data about a physical object, particularly about its shape and texture. A 3D scanner is often used to create 3D summary files, particularly for 3D printing.
Example of an Artec manual 3D scanner (Photo credit : Artec group)
The different 3D scanner technologies
3D scanner technology appeared in the 1980s. It is generally classified in 3 families:
- Laser triangulation
- 3D scanning by detecting time-of-flight
- 3D scanning by phase field
These 3 technologies can be combined for a more effective result.
In the case of laser triangulation, the scanner projects a grid or a checkerboard, and a camera measures the grid's deformity at a known distance from the laser source. The reflection angle is interpretedto determine the object's measurements.
Illustration of a triangulation scanner operation
Reconstructing a 3D file from a 3D scan
Whatever the 3D scanning technology used, it is inevitably followed by a data processing step. The line scan and/or the images taken by the camera are combined in order to create a scatter diagram with the help of specific 3D software such as Geomagic. Different steps are often necessary to obtain a useable 3D file, including:
Removal of parasitic elements
Manual or automatic positioning between 3D shoots to reconstruct
Final adjustments to the object
Improve the mesh quality
Perform any repairs
- Reverse engineering, reverse designing of an object scanned in 3D
Illustration of a 3D scan uploaded on sculpteo.com
The main uses of 3D scanners in 3D printing
3D scanners have been used for many years in the medical field, buildings and public works, and in industry to take measurements, for quality control, three-dimensional analysis, structural deformity analysis, or to recover a plan.
Some of the most frequent uses are scanning people to print 3D figurines, scanning parts for reverse engineering, or 3D printing 3D elements from medical scans.
However, some objects are easier to scan than others:
- Stationary objects
- Smaller sized objects
- Opaque objects
Reflective surfaces or very dark objects are more difficult to scan. One possible solution is to cover them in a fine layer of powder, like talc. Another challenge is that an object's interior cannot be scanned. The 3D scan can then be used as a first step to recover the general shape of an objectand serve as a basis for 3D modelling. Some 3D software programs are better suited to handling scanned 3D files, like MeshLab or Meshmixer (links to come). To learn more, please refer to our video "Ask a 3D Designer" that explains how to handle scanned 3D files and the ways to clean and repair them to make them suitable for 3D printing.
Find the Nearest 3D Scanning Spot
Buying a 3D scanner implies costs, skills and a tracking often better mastered by a 3D scanning service. In this way, we decided to create a database that collect a verified list of 3D local scanning services and individuals who want to share their scanner and skills.
This database is available as a map in which you can display the various spots where a 3D scanner is available (professionnal service, individual, fablab, university...). With the buttons, choose to show 3D scanners near to your location or in an specified area.
As the 3D print and scan sector grows, the map could be outdated and a spot may no longer be available. We invite you to contact us to tell us about a change.
In the same way, you can add a 3D scanning place by contacting us. In order to add a new spot, please send us its name, address and any contact information you have (phone number, e-mail, website, social media).